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Accounting principles and Alternative performance measures

From Ratos year-end report 2019

Ratos’s consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and associated interpretations (IFRIC), as endorsed by the EU. This year-end report was prepared in accordance with IAS 34, Interim Financial Reporting, and applicable provisions in the Swedish Annual Accounts Act. The parent company also applies RFR 2 Accounting for Legal Entities. As of 2019, Ratos applies IFRS 16 Leases. In all other respects, the reporting and measurement principles are unchanged compared with those applied in Ratos’s 2018 Annual Report.

Changed accounting principles due to new IFRS 16 Leases

IFRS 16 Leases has replaced IAS 17 Leases, IFRIC 4 Determining Whether an Arrangement Contains a Lease and related rules as of 2019. Under the new standard, the lessee is required to recognise all contracts that meet the definition of a lease as a right-of-use asset and financial liability in the statement of financial position. The standard entails no difference for the lessee between operating and finance leases. Leases that previously comprised operating leases will now be recognised in the balance sheet, which entails that expenses previously reported as operating expenses corresponding to the lease payments for the period have now been replaced by depreciation and interest expense in profit or loss. Payments for short-term leases and low-value leases will be expensed on a straight-line basis in profit or loss. Short-term leases are leases with a term of 12 months or less. For the Ratos Group’s financial statements, this has entailed improved operating profit before depreciation, higher depreciation and amortisation, weaker net financial items and increased total assets. Cash flow from leases has been moved from operating activities to financing activities (amortisation and interest paid). With the application of IFRS 16, the total lease cost is normally higher in the first few years of a lease, and then later diminishes over time. This is because the interest expense decreases over time as the lease liability is amortised.

Ratos has chosen to apply the modified retrospective approach during the transition to IFRS 16 using the practical expedients contained in the standard. This means the accumulated effect of the application of IFRS 16 will be recognised in retained earnings in the opening balance as of 1 January 2019 without restating comparative figures. The comparative figures for 2018 in this year-end report are thus based on earlier policies and are only restated for figures where specified. Leases that are of a low value as well as leases with a term of 12 months or less, referred to as short-term leases, or that end within 12 months from the transition date, were not included in the lease liability but rather expensed on a straight-line basis during the lease term. The Group has chosen to measure the opening lease liability and opening right-of-use asset for most of its leases at the same amount as of 1 January 2019, with the right-of-use asset adjusted for prepaid lease payments recognised in the balance sheet as of 31 December 2018. For leases classified as finance leases in accordance with IAS 17, the carrying amount for the right-of-use asset and lease liability according to IFRS 16 will, as of 1 January 2019, correspond to the carrying amount of the lease asset and lease liability in accordance with IAS 17 immediately prior to the transition to IFRS 16. For lossmaking agreements, the Group has chosen to reduce the value of the right-of-use asset by the amount recognised as provisions as of 31 December 2018. The effect on equity is therefore limited. When determining the value of the right-of-use assets and financial lease liability, the most critical assessments are the following:

- Lease payments have been discounted by the incremental borrowing rate. The change in Plantasjen’s interest-bearing liability accounts for 70% of the Group’s change. Plantasjen has used an incremental borrowing rate of 4.1%–6.7%.
- Options to extend and terminate contracts have been taken into account for the leases when it has beenconsidered reasonably certain that these will be exercised.
- Historical information has been used when assessing the term of a lease in cases when an option exists to extend or terminate a contract.


See also Note 10 for further details about how the result for the period and interest-bearing net debt have been affected by IFRS 16. Approximately SEK 600m of the opening lease liability is short-term.


Alternative performance measures
To facilitate comparison between periods and enable follow-up of ongoing earnings and development in the company portfolio, Ratos presents some financial information, which is not defined in IFRS. The link below contains a description of these key ratios as well as a reconciliation / bridge between alternative key ratios used in Ratos's financial reports and the closest IFRS measures.

Alternative performance measures 2019

Alternative performance measures 2018

Alternative performance measures 2017

Alternative performance measures 2016