Accounting principles and Alternative performance measures

From Ratos interim report January-December 2018

Ratos’s consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and associated interpretations (IFRIC), as endorsed by the EU. This interim report was prepared in accordance with IAS 34, Interim Financial Reporting, and applicable provisions in the Swedish Annual Accounts Act. The parent company also applies RFR 2 Accounting for Legal Entities.

Changed accounting principles due to new IFRS

As of 2018, Ratos applies IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers and IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. The following changes have been made with respect to the application of the new standards. In all other respects, reporting and measurement principles are unchanged compared with those applied in Ratos’s 2017 Annual Report.

IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers
IFRS 15 is to be applied from 2018 and addresses the recognition of revenue from contracts with customers and the sale of certain nonfinancial assets. It has replaced IAS 11 Construction Contracts, IAS 18 Revenue and related interpretations. The new standard introduces a new model for revenue recognition based on the core principle that revenue is to be recognised when control over goods or services has been passed to the customer and in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company is entitled in exchange for those goods or services.

Ratos has chosen to apply the full retrospective approach during the transition using the practical solutions contained in the standard, although no material practical solutions have been used. The transition to IFRS 15 has not had any material impact on the Ratos Group’s financial earnings or position. No comparative figures have therefore been restated and no disclosures regarding the transition are presented.

Ratos is an investment company whose business comprises the acquisition and development of preferably unlisted Nordic enterprises. Over time, Ratos is to generate the highest possible shareholder value by actively exercising its ownership to realise the potential of a number of selected companies. At the end of the fourth quarter of 2018, the portfolio comprised 11 subsidiaries and one associated company. The portfolio companies are active in different sectors, and operate strategically, operationally and financially independent of each other. Since the operations of Ratos’s subsidiaries are so varied, the most relevant basis for revenue classification is considered to be by portfolio company and the industries in which the companies operate. These two categories provide information about the Ratos Group’s primary analysis requirement and give the reader an opportunity to gain an understanding of the various industries in which Ratos is involved in order to assess the Group’s sensitivity to market trends and other economic factors that could impact revenue.

IFRS 9 Financial Instruments
IFRS 9 is to be applied from 2018 and has replaced IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement. For the Ratos Group, IFRS 9 does not entail any changes with respect to recognition in and derecognition from the Statement of financial position. However, changes will occur with respect to the classification and measurement of financial instruments. On initial recognition, all financial instruments are to be measured at fair value, which complies with IAS 39. After initial recognition, financial assets are measured at amortised cost, fair value through profit or loss, or fair value through other comprehensive income. The classification of financial assets is determined based on the company’s business model and the contractual cash flows the company will receive from the financial asset.

The category of amortised cost includes trade receivables, financial receivables and cash and cash equivalents. The category of fair value through profit or loss includes derivatives not used as hedging instruments, synthetic options, contingent considerations and other securities held as non-current assets. The Ratos Group has no financial assets in the category of fair value through other comprehensive income.

The measurement of financial liabilities is largely unchanged compared with IAS 39.

Under IFRS 9, the impairment requirement for receivables is to be determined based on expected credit losses, which for the Ratos Group mainly impacts the recognition of bad debts. The Group’s bad debts have been non-material, and remain so after the transition to the new standard. Each portfolio company applies its own impairment model for trade receivables based on assumptions and historical information. Most portfolio companies have chosen to apply a simplified impairment model. Three portfolio companies apply factoring for invoices to a small number of customers, which are regarded as separate business models since they can be distinguished from the other receivables.

With respect to hedge accounting, IFRS 9 has had no impact on the Ratos Group’s financial position and earnings. The comparative figures for 2017 are based on earlier principles and have not been restated. The transition to IFRS 9 has not had any impact on opening balance.

Refer to Note 16 Financial instruments and Note 26 Financial risks and risk policy in Ratos’s 2017 Annual Report for a description of the hedges within the Ratos Group.

Convertible debt instrument and warrants
The parent company has issued a convertible debt instrument to its personnel, who paid market value. Recognition of the convertible debt instrument is divided up into an interest-bearing debt and a conversion option. The conversion option is recognised in equity.

The initial fair value of the debt portion of the convertible debt instrument was calculated by using the market rate on the issue date for an equivalent non-convertible bond. On initial recognition, the debt is measured at amortised cost until it is converted or falls due. The remainder of the cash and cash equivalent is apportioned to the conversion option, recognised net after tax in equity, and is not remeasured. The convertible subordinated loan issued entails no personnel costs. In the event of any future conversion of the debt instrument, new shares will be issued that increase equity at the same time as the debt portion is transferred to equity. If conversion does not take place, the debt will be repaid to the participants on the due date.

The parent company has also issued warrants to personnel. The warrants are offered free of charge, which means that the participants retain a benefit equivalent to the market value. The market value in connection with allotment was calculated using the Black–Scholes model. The associated benefit and social security contributions are recognised in their entirety as personnel costs upon issuance since there are no vesting conditions. The cost of the benefit is recognised with an equivalent increase of equity. In the event of any future utilisation of warrants, the parent company retains cash and cash equivalents corresponding to the exercise price, whereupon new shares will be issued and the exercise settlement recognised as an increase in equity.

New IFRS that have not yet come into force

IFRS 16 Leases replaces IAS 17 Leases, IFRIC 4 Determining Whether an Arrangement Contains a Lease and related rules as of 2019. Under the new standard, the lessee is required to recognise all contracts that meet the definition of a lease (except leases of 12 months or less and leases of low-value assets) as a right-of-use asset and financial liability in the statement of financial position.

The standard entails no difference for the lessee between operating and finance leases. Leases that currently comprise operating leases will subsequently be recognised in the balance sheet, which entails that the current operating expense, corresponding to the leasing charges for the period, will be replaced by amortisation and interest expense in the income statement. Ratos’s financial statements will largely be impacted as follows: improved operating profit, declined net financial items, increased total assets, cash flow from leases moved from operating activities to financing activities (amortisation and interest paid).

To make it easier for the reader, Ratos will include certain key figures excluding IFRS 16 in its interim reports for 2019. This is to ensure comparability between years.

Ratos has chosen to apply the modified retrospective method during the transition to IFRS 16. Both 2017 and 2018 are based on earlier principles and have not been restated. The effect of IFRS 16 will be reported in the opening balance as of 1 January 2019. IFRS 16 entails that interest-bearing net debt in the Group will increase approximately SEK 4 billion to almost SEK 8 billion as of 1 January 2019. The increase is mainly attributable to Plantasjen, whose leasing liability will increase by around SEK 3 billion. The table below shows the preliminary effect on the opening balance as of 1 January 2019.


Alternative performance measures
To facilitate comparison between periods and enable follow-up of ongoing earnings and development in the company portfolio, Ratos presents some financial information, which is not defined in IFRS. The link below contains a description of these key ratios as well as a reconciliation / bridge between alternative key ratios used in Ratos's financial reports and the closest IFRS measures.


Alternative performance measures 2018

Alternative performance measures 2017

Alternative performance measures 2016